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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY - Contents of New Book

Numbers refer to nominal Kindle pages as an ebook. Just over 600 A4 pages in printed form.

CONTENTS

Introduction. 16

THE ATMOSPHERE.. 17

Atmospheric System.. 17

The Structure of the Atmosphere. 20

Energy Transfers in the Atmosphere. 25

The Global Heat Budget 27

Global Insolation. 30

Atmospheric Circulation. 33

Redistribution of energy. 33

Atmospheric Circulation Model 35

Forces Governing global circulation. 38

Improvements in atmospheric circulation models 41

Planetary wind circulation. 46

Land and water differences. 49

Ocean currents 51

Temperature variations across 55

the globe. 55

Air Masses. 59

Origin and movement 59

Air masses and the. 62

inter-tropical convergence zone. 62

The inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ 62

ITCZ migration and its effect in. 66

West Africa. 66

The variability of rainfall 77

Atmospheric Moisture. 80

Aspects of local climate. 100

Tropical Cyclones. 104

How do tropical cyclones form?. 106

Hurricane safety. 111

Reducing damage from Tropical storms 116

Case Study. 120

Tropical Storms and Global Warming. 124

Question Section. 127

THE ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEM.. 127

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION.. 129

ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION - Part two 131

OCEAN CURRENTS / TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS ACROSS THE GLOBE 133

ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE. 134

TROPICAL CYCLONES. 134

Exam Style Questions 136

Further Research and Questions 145

THE LITHOSPHERE.. 149

Rocks and the landscape. 149

The Earth’s internal structure. 155

Crustal movements. 158

Earthquakes 169

Volcanoes. 171

The ten most explosive eruptions in recent history are: 178

Question Section. 182

CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS. 182

EARTHQUAKES. 182

VOLCANOES. 183

Exam Style Question and Marked Answer 183

Geology of the British Isles. 188

Structure. 193

Weathering. 200

Mass movements. 209

Rockfalls. 211

Landslides. 212

Slumping. 214

Mudflows. 215

Soil creep. 218

Slopes. 221

Slope elements. 226

Slope evolution. 227

Slope decline. 228

Slope retreat 229

Slope replacement 232

Mapping Slopes. 234

Landscapes. 236

Question Section. 241

THE GEOLOGY OF THE BRITISH ISLES/ LANDSCAPES 241

WEATHERING.. 244

MASS MOVEMENTS. 245

SLOPES. 247

EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS. 248

Glaciation. 249

Glaciers. 254

The Glacial system.. 254

Glacier flow.. 257

Ice sculpting the landscape. 262

Glacial Erosion. 265

Cairngorms - Upland Glaciation. 275

Glacial Deposition. 281

Question Section. 293

GLACIATION/GLACIATED UPLANDS 293

EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS. 296

The periglacial environment 299

Permafrost 299

Periglacial processes and landforms 303

Question Section. 311

PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS. 311

Exam Style Question and Marked Answer 312

THE RURAL LAND RESOURCE.. 315

Case study of the Lake District 322

Geology and structure. 323

Mountain and lake scenery. 328

The National Park. 335

Land Use. 341

Lakeland Conflicts. 344

Windermere. 348

Problems and possible solutions 350

Question Section. 354

Lake District Case Study. 354

Exam Style Questions 357

THE BIOSPHERE.. 358

Ecosystems. 358

Soil 369

Soil formation. 376

Soil System.. 387

Soil Properties 389

Soil classification. 400

Zonal soils. 404

Intrazonal soils. 414

Azonal soils. 417

Soils in Dartmoor: a case study. 417

Question Section. 420

ECOSYSTEMS. 420

SOIL. 421

SOIL FORMATION.. 421

SOIL CLASSIFICATION.. 422

Research and further work. 424

Exam Style Questions 424

Question and Marked Answer. 428

Biomes – World Ecosystems. 430

Plant succession. 439

Pioneer stage. 441

During succession. 442

Climax. 444

Forest biomes 445

1. Tropical rainforests. 445

Degradation of the Tropical Rainforests 451

Consequences of deforestation. 459

Large-scale commercial exploitation. 466

Progress in Rainforest Conservation. 474

Conservationists and indigenous peoples 477

2. Temperate deciduous forest 479

3. Coniferous forests 483

Grassland Biomes 488

Tropical Grassland (Savanna) 488

Temperate Grassland. 491

Mediterranean Woodland Biome. 494

Hot Desert Biome. 497

Drylands. 501

Desert Landforms 507

Erosional Features and Landforms. 514

Depositional Features and Landforms 519

LAND DEGRADATION SOIL EROSION AND DESERTIFICATION 522

Question Section. 548

BIOMES: WORLD ECOSYSTEMS. 548

PLANT SUCCESSION.. 549

FORESTS AND THE BIOSPHERE. 550

DEGRADATION IN THE RAINFOREST 552

SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION 553

DESERTIFICATION.. 554

Exam Style Questions 554

Exam Style Questions with Marked Answers 559

Research and further work. 571

Sand Dune environments. 571

Heather, Moorland and Bog. 578

Walls and Wasteland. 585

Question Section. 591

SAND DUNE ENVIRONMENTS. 591

HEATHER MOORLAND AND BOG.. 592

WALLS AND WASTELAND.. 593

Exam Style Questions 594

Exam Style Question and Marked Answer 597

THE HYDROSPHERE.. 599

The Global Hydrological Cycle. 604

The Water Budget 609

The Basin Hydrological Cycle. 619

Drainage patterns 625

Groundwater and Run-off 628

Channel run-off 632

Hydrographs 634

Annual Hydrographs 642

River Regime. 643

The Highland Floods of 1989. 648

Question Section. 658

THE GLOBAL HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE 658

THE BASIN HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE. 660

THE WATER BUDGET. 661

GROUNDWATER AND RUN-OFF. 662

STREAM HYDROGRAPHS. 664

Rivers. 666

Erosion, Transport and Deposition. 666

Erosion. 669

Transport 672

Deposition. 677

River Landscapes: Valleys. 677

Alluvial landforms. 680

River Landscapes: meanders 686

River Landscapes: Braiding and rejuvenation 694

Rejuvenation. 696

River Landscapes: Deltas. 701

River long profile. 707

Drainage Basin geometry. 715

Rivers and people. 719

Case Study – The Three Gorges Dam.. 722

Question Section. 728

EROSION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION 728

RIVER LANDSCAPES: BRAIDING AND REJUVENATION / DELTAS 730

RIVER LANDSCAPES: VALLEYS / MEANDERS 731

Research and Further work. 733

Exam Style Questions 734

Exam Style Question and Marked Answer 737

Coastlines. 739

Waves, tides and currents. 741

Beaches. 747

Features of Coastal Erosion. 760

Caves, arches and stacks 764

Low energy coasts. 768

Sediment Cells. 770

Sediment cells in England and Wales. 773

Sediment Budgets 775

Changes of sea-level 778

Shorelines of submergence. 782

Coral Reefs. 787

Coastal classification. 797

Management of coastal erosion by Regional Coastal Groups 799

Question Section. 814

COASTS. 814

Exam Style Questions 816

Exam Style Questions and Marked Answers 822

Water in the Rocks. 838

Scarp and Vale. 840

Water in Carboniferous Limestone. 853

Question Section. 870

SCARP AND VALE. 870

EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS. 872

KARST/ UPLAND LIMESTONE LANDSCAPES 874

OS MAP OF MALHAM.. 874

EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS. 877

CLIMATE CHANGE.. 877

Introduction to Climate Change. 878

Reasons for Climatic Change. 885

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 896

The Greenhouse Effect 900

Climate Modelling. 912

The Climate Change Debate. 917

Impact of the Greenhouse effect 921

The Ozone Layer 930

Effect of ozone depletion. 935

What is being done?. 936

Solutions to Global Warming. 939

Individual vs governmental action. 973

What would happen to future. 975

Climate, if we stopped. 975

emissions today?. 975

Question section. 979

CLIMATE CHANGE/REASONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE 979

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT. 982

THE OZONE LAYER/THE OZONE HOLE 983

SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING.. 984

Exam Style Question with marked Answer 985

Further Research. 987

THE GEOPOLITICS OF WATER.. 987

Tensions on the Nile. 990

Freshwater stress. 991

Some examples of water issues globally 1000

Water security. 1010

International Relations. 1011

About the Author 1013

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