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Geography

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August Shestakov
August Shestakov

Female War I Am Pottery 01 (2015) 


The first examples of pottery appeared in Eastern Asia several thousand years later. In the Xianrendong cave in China, fragments of pots dated to 18,000-17,000 BCE have been found. It is believed that from China the use of pottery successively spread to Japan and the Russian Far East region where archeologists have found shards of ceramic artifacts dating to 14,000 BCE.




Female War I Am Pottery 01 (2015) 



Meanwhile, ceramic pottery evolved in its use of increasingly elaborated paintings, so that these objects eventually became genuine pieces of art. Decorations also involved the use oxidizing and reducing atmosphere during firing to achieve special effects. Greek Attic vases of the 6th and 5th centuries BCE are considered the apex of this evolution.


Year(s)Development28,000 BCECeramic figurines are used for ceremonial purposes.18,000 BCEChinese pottery appears.18,000 BCE to 14,000 BCECeramic pottery spreads in Eastern Asia.9,000 BCECeramic products, such as vases, bricks, and tiles, become popular in the Middle East and Europe.7,000 BCESharp tools made from natural glass appear.5,000 BCEPhoenician merchants possibly make the first glass.3,500 BCESimple glass items are fabricated in Mesopotamia and Egypt.3,500 BCEThe wheel is invented, which will later be applied in wheel-forming of pottery.3,000 BCEGlazed pottery is produced in Mesopotamia.1,500 BCEEgyptians start building factories for production of glassware.700 BCECeramic pottery becomes artwork in Attic Greece.600 CE600 CEChinese introduce porcelain.1400sHigh-temperature furnaces are developed in Europe for metallurgical use.1500sHigh-temperature refractory materials are introduced to build furnaces for making steel, glass, ceramics, and cements, leading the way to the industrial revolution. Mid 1800s Porcelain electrical insulators and incandescent light bulbs are invented.1920sHigh-strength quartz-enriched porcelain for insulators, alumina spark plugs, glass windows for automobiles, and ceramic capacitors are introduced.1940sResearch on oxide magnetic materials (ferrites) and ferroelectric materials begins.1950sCeramic capacitors based on barium titanate are developed.1960sAlumina insulators for voltages over 220 kV are introduced and applications for carbides and nitrides are developed. The first yttria-based transparent ceramic is invented. Bioglass is also discovered.1970sPartially stabilized zirconia is developed. High-performance cellular ceramic substrates for catalytic converter and particulate filters for diesel engines are commercialized.1980sCeramic high-temperature superconductors are developed.1990sMultilayer ceramic circuits (low-temperature co-fired ceramics) are commercialized. Low-fusing ceramics are introduced for dental prostheses. The first whisker-reinforced alumina composites are fabricated by hot-pressing. Polycrystalline neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnets for solid-state lasers are developed.Late 1990sNanotechnology initiatives begin proliferating worldwide.Late 1990sThe robocasting process for 3D printing of ceramics is developed. 2000sBy creating ZrB2/HfB2-based composites that resist temperatures up to 2,200C, NASA revives interest in the development of ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs) for fabrication of hypersonic aircraft and reusable space vehicles.2010sVarious processes are being developed for 3D printing of technical ceramics. In 2017 the first hyperelastic bone is created by 3D printing.


ATHENE (Athena) was the Olympian goddess of wisdom and good counsel, war, the defence of towns, heroic endeavour, weaving, pottery and various other crafts.She was depicted as a stately woman armed with a shield and spear, and wearing a long robe, crested helm, and the famed aigis--a snake-trimmed cape adorned with the monstrous visage of the Gorgon Medousa (Medusa).


The character of Athena, as we have here traced it, holds a middle place between the male and female, whence she is called in an Orphic hymn (xxxi. 10) arsên kai thêlus, and hence also she is a virgin divinity (Hom. Hymn. ix. 3), whose heart is inaccessible to the passion of love, and who shuns matrimonial connexion. Teiresias was deprived of his sight for having seen her in the bath (Callim. Hymn. pp. 546,589), and Hephaestus, who made an attempt upon her chastity, was obliged to flee. (Apollod. iii. 6. 7, 14. 6; Hom. Il. ii. 547, &c.; comp. Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 111.) For this reason, the ancient traditions always describe the goddess as dressed; and when Ovid (Heroid. v. 36) makes her appear naked before Paris, he abandons the genuine old story. Her statue also was always dressed, and when it was carried about at the Attic festivals, it was entirely covered. But, notwithstanding the common opinion of her virgin character, there are some traditions of late origin which describe her as a mother. Thus, Apollo is called a son of Hephaestus and Athena -- a legend which may have arisen at the time when the Ionians introduced the worship of Apollo into Attica, and when this new divinity was placed in some family connexion with the ancient goddess of the country. (Müller, Dor. ii. 2. 13.) Lychnus also is called a son of Hephaestus and Athena. (Spanheim, ad Callim. p. 644.)


The sacrifices offered to her consisted of bulls, whence she probably derived the surname of taurobolos (Suid. s. v.), rams, and cows. (Horn. Il. ii. 550; Ov. Met. iv. 754.) Eustathius (ad Hom. l. c.) remarks, that only female animals were sacrificed to her, but no female lambs. In Ilion, Locrian maidens or children are said to have been sacrificed to her every year as an atonement for the crime committed by the Locrian Ajax upon Cassandra; and Suidas (s. v. poinê) states, that these human sacrifices continued to be offered to her down to B. C. 346. Respecting the great festivals of Athena at Athens, see Dict. of Ant. s. vv. Panathenaea and Arrhephoria.


By occupation, median usual weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2019 for chief executives ($2,019), veterinarians ($1,985), computer and information systems managers ($1,892), physicians and surgeons ($1,878), lawyers ($1,878), and pharmacists ($1,877). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,509), physicians and surgeons ($2,500), architectural and engineering managers ($2,457), pharmacists ($2,245), and lawyers ($2,202). (See table 18.)


In 2019, 9.7 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 10.8 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2019 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)


There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2019. Women accounted for 12 percent of the 9.3 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans was 3.7 percent in 2019, and the rate for male veterans was 3.0 percent. (See table 35.)


Television during the 1950s focused on the family and American domestic life, and sitcoms regularly depicted happy marriages cemented by traditional male and female roles. Audiences expected to see wives at home, cooking, cleaning, and nurturing children, while men worked in respectable jobs to support their families.


The first farmers, who spread west from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to arrive in central Europe 7500 years ago, lived more settled lives than the nomadic fishing and foraging peoples they displaced. They built houses, cultivated plants, and decorated pottery. But researchers have long debated whether these Neolithic farming communities also engaged in warfare and other types of systemized violence.


After the destruction of the Mycenaean palaces, there is no evidence that these buildings were rebuilt; it seems clear, however, that some of these sites were reoccupied, and that in some cases there were attempts to build new structures, although no real attempt to rebuild the old palaces can be identified. At Mycenae, the uppermost terraces were abandoned, but part of the citadel was reoccupied; at Dhimini, activities at the destroyed large palatial complex were partly restored but abandoned soon after. Some aspects of Mycenaean culture continued to exist for about a century or so after c. 1200 BCE. In mainland Greece and some of the Cyclades islands, Mycenaean pottery and Mycenaean burials persisted.


By about 1100 BCE, a number of changes can be identified in the archaeological record affecting burial practices, settlements, and pottery styles. In many regions, the Mycenaean custom of burial in family vaults was suddenly replaced by a new single burial practice, while cremation was adopted in some areas. Regional variations in burial practices have been identified and also different practices coexisting within the same community.


The study of settlements suggests a dramatic population decline in Greece during the Dark Age. This is reflected by the reduction in the number of settlements in Greece that can be identified around 1100 BCE: the number of recorded sites and cemeteries of Greece during the LH IIIB and LH IIIC period clearly show this tendency (see figure 1). This is consistent with the figures proposed by Anthony Snodgrass for the number of occupied sites in Greece identified based on different pottery styles:


Like burials, pottery styles throughout Greece during the Dark Age saw the emergence of regional variations, unlike during Mycenaean times when pottery displayed a stylistic unit. During some time after the destruction of the palaces, the pottery industry continued during the LH IIIC period, but it eventually decreased its quality, followed by the emergence of new regional pottery styles. An overview of the Greek regional pottery styles is presented in Table 2.


Abstract decoration dominated the Dark Age pottery styles. Figurative art, largely absent during the Greek Dark Age and fairly common during Mycenaean times, returned during the late stage of the Geometric style, including battles, chariot processions, and funerary scenes. Only a few examples of figurative art in pottery have been recorded prior to the Late Geometric style (e.g. Early Protogeometric styles in Lefkandi and Crete).


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